On the Implementation of OPF-Based Setpoints for Active Distribution Networks
In the context of active distribution networks, AC Optimal Power Flow (OPF) has shown great potential to calculate setpoints for controllable devices. Although considerable literature exists, temporal aspects that may affect the actual execution of these setpoints are rarely investigated. Due to the diverse operating characteristics of controllable devices (i.e., delays, ramp rates and deadbands), when these setpoints are executed by multiple devices without adequate considerations, the resulting outcome can differ drastically from what is expected; leading to violations of network constraints and excessive control actions. Therefore, this work proposes a series of necessary adaptations within the controllers of existing devices as well as in the OPF formulation to cater for the diversity in operating characteristics, ensuring that calculated setpoints are adequately implemented by controllable devices. This involves the direct control of conventional devices and enforcing a new ramping behavior for inverter-interfaced devices. Furthermore, a linear, mixed-integer formulation is proposed to handle discrete devices and improve scalability in large networks. Co-simulation results (using a U.K. test network with the objective of maximizing renewable energy production and considering 1s time-step) demonstrate that, by catering for the operating characteristics of controllable devices, the expected outcome from OPF-based setpoints can be achieved.
© 2021 IEEE. Manuscript received January 31, 2020; revised July 7, 2020, November 3, 2020, January 8, 2021; accepted January 14, 2021. Date of publication January 26, 2021; date of current version June 21, 2021. Paper no. TSG-00148-2020.