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Published October 13, 2023 | Published
Journal Article Open

An ultrahigh-fidelity 3D holographic display using scattering to homogenize the angular spectrum

  • 1. ROR icon California Institute of Technology


A three-dimensional (3D) holographic display (3DHD) can preserve all the volumetric information about an object. However, the poor fidelity of 3DHD constrains its applications. Here, we present an ultrahigh-fidelity 3D holographic display that uses scattering for homogenization of angular spectrum. A scattering medium randomizes the incident photons and homogenizes the angular spectrum distribution. The redistributed field is recorded by a photopolymer film with numerous modulation modes and a half-wavelength scale pixel size. We have experimentally improved the contrast of a focal spot to 6 × 10⁶ and tightened its spatial resolution to 0.5 micrometers, respectively ~300 and 4.4 times better than digital approaches. By exploiting the spatial multiplexing ability of the photopolymer and the transmission channel selection capability of the scattering medium, we have realized a dynamic holographic display of 3D spirals consisting of 20 foci across 1 millimeter × 1 millimeter × 26 millimeters with uniform intensity.

Copyright and License

© 2023 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CC BY).


This work was supported in part by National Institutes of Health grants R01 EB028277 and R35 CA220436 (Outstanding Investigator Award), National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 62375171), and Shanghai Jiao Tong University 2030 Initiative (No. WH510363001-10).


J.Y., L.S.L., and Q.H. designed the research. J.Y. constructed the HAS-3DHD system and wrote the codes for the experiments. J.Y., L.S.L., and Q.H. performed the experiments. C.L. prepared the photopolymer holographic material. J.Y., L.S.L., Q.H., and Y.Q. analyzed the experimental results. L.V.W. supervised the project. All authors contributed to the writing of the manuscript.

Data Availability

All data needed to evaluate the conclusions in the paper are present in the paper and/or the Supplementary Materials.

Conflict of Interest

L.V.W. has an interest in Microphotoacoustics Inc., CalPACT LLC, and Union Photoacoustic Technologies Ltd., which, however, did not support this work. L.S.L. has an interest in BLOCH Quantum Imaging Solutions, although they did not support this work. The other authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Additional details

October 13, 2023
October 13, 2023