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Published July 5, 2017 | Published
Journal Article Open

Fabrication of Single Crystal Gallium Phosphide Thin Films on Glass


Due to its high refractive index and low absorption coefficient, gallium phosphide is an ideal material for photonic structures targeted at the visible wavelengths. However, these properties are only realized with high quality epitaxial growth, which limits substrate choice and thus possible photonic applications. In this work, we report the fabrication of single crystal gallium phosphide thin films on transparent glass substrates via transfer bonding. GaP thin films on Si (001) and (112) grown by MOCVD are bonded to glass, and then the growth substrate is removed with a XeF_2 vapor etch. The resulting GaP films have surface roughnesses below 1 nm RMS and exhibit room temperature band edge photoluminescence. Magnesium doping yielded p-type films with a carrier density of 1.6 × 10^(17) cm^(−3) that exhibited mobilities as high as 16 cm^2V^(−1)s^(−1). Due to their unique optical properties, these films hold much promise for use in advanced optical devices.

Additional Information

© 2017 The Author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. Received: 08 February 2017; Accepted: 30 May 2017; Published online: 05 July 2017. The information, data, or work presented herein was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program, under Award Number DE-EE0006335. Work at the Molecular Foundry was supported by the Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02–05CH11231. We gratefully acknowledge critical support and infrastructure provided for this work by the Kavli Nanoscience Institute at Caltech. The authors thank Shaul Aloni of the Molecular Foundry for his assistance with GaP MOCVD growth and Phillip Jahelka for helpful discussion. Author Contributions: H.E. and H.A. conceived the experiment following discussions with A.F. H.E. performed bonding and etch processes, scanning electron microscopy, electrical and optical characterization and prepared the manuscript. C.C. and R.S. performed GaP growths and contributed to manuscript text. R.S. performed atomic force microscopy measurements. C.C. performed X.R.D. measurements and prepared figures. D.F. performed photoluminescence measurements and discussed results. Y.H. and A.A. assisted in bonding process development. All authors discussed results and edited the manuscript. The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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