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Published September 1, 2004 | Published
Journal Article Open

Volatiles in glasses from the HSDP2 drill core


H2O, CO2, S, Cl, and F concentrations are reported for 556 glasses from the submarine section of the 1999 phase of HSDP drilling in Hilo, Hawaii, providing a high-resolution record of magmatic volatiles over ~200 kyr of a Hawaiian volcano's lifetime. Glasses range from undegassed to having lost significant volatiles at near-atmospheric pressure. Nearly all hyaloclastite glasses are degassed, compatible with formation from subaerial lavas that fragmented on entering the ocean and were transported by gravity flows down the volcano flank. Most pillows are undegassed, indicating submarine eruption. The shallowest pillows and most massive lavas are degassed, suggesting formation by subaerial flows that penetrated the shoreline and flowed some distance under water. Some pillow rim glasses have H2O and S contents indicating degassing but elevated CO2 contents that correlate with depth in the core; these tend to be more fractionated and could have formed by mixing of degassed, fractionated magmas with undegassed magmas during magma chamber overturn or by resorption of rising CO2-rich bubbles by degassed magmas. Intrusive glasses are undegassed and have CO2 contents similar to adjacent pillows, indicating intrusion shallow in the volcanic edifice. Cl correlates weakly with H2O and S, suggesting loss during low-pressure degassing, although most samples appear contaminated by seawater-derived components. F behaves as an involatile incompatible element. Fractionation trends were modeled using MELTS. Degassed glasses require fractionation at pH2O ≈ 5–10 bars. Undegassed low-SiO2 glasses require fractionation at pH2O ≈ 50 bars. Undegassed and partially degassed high-SiO2 glasses can be modeled by coupled crystallization and degassing. Eruption depths of undegassed pillows can be calculated from their volatile contents assuming vapor saturation. The amount of subsidence can be determined from the difference between this depth and the sample's depth in the core. Assuming subsidence at 2.5 mm/y, the amount of subsidence suggests ages of ~500 ka for samples from the lower 750 m of the core, consistent with radiometric ages. H2O contents of undegassed low-SiO2 HSDP2 glasses are systematically higher than those of high-SiO2 glasses, and their H2O/K2O and H2O/Ce ratios are higher than typical tholeiitic pillow rim glasses from Hawaiian volcanoes.

Additional Information

Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union. Received 24 June 2003; Revised 9 April 2004; Accepted 12 May 2004; Published 1 September 2004. We thank the entire Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project team for their assistance, but in particular Don DePaolo and Don Thomas for their roles in the leadership of the project. Jackie Dixon, Erik Hauri, Peter Michael, and Sally Newman all helped with our compilation of volatile data from other submarine glasses. Ian Hutcheon and Doug Phinney provided assistance with the ion microprobe measurements at Livermore. This work was supported by NSF grants EAR-9528594 (Caltech) and EAR-9528534 and EAR00-01123 (University of Hawaii) and by The International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). SOEST contribution 6354 and Caltech Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences contribution 8960.

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