Three-Dimensional Velocity Measurements Around and Downstream of a Rotating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
Modern designs for straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) feature smaller individual footprints than conventional horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs), allowing closer spacing of turbines and potentially greater power extraction for the same wind farm footprint. However, the wakes of upstream turbines could persist far enough to affect the performance of closely-spaced downstream turbines. In order to optimize the inter-turbine spacing and to investigate the potential for constructive aerodynamic interactions, the complex dynamics of VAWT wakes should be understood. The full three-component mean velocity field around and downstream of a scaled model of a rotating VAWT has been measured by Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry (MRV). The model turbine has an aspect ratio (height/diameter) of 1, and was operated in a water facility at subscale but still turbulent Reynolds number of 11,600 based on the turbine diameter. The main flow features including recirculation bubble sizes and strong vortex structures are believed to be representative of flow at full scale Reynolds number. To have kinematic similarity with a power-producing turbine, the model turbine was externally driven. Measurements were taken with the turbine stationary and while driven at tip speed ratios (TSRs) of 1.25 and 2.5, realistic values for VAWTs in operation. The MRV measurement produced three-dimensional velocity data with a resolution of 1/50 of the turbine diameter in all three directions. The flow is shown to be highly three dimensional and asymmetric for the entirety of the investigated region (up to 7 diameters downstream of the turbine). The higher TSR produced greater velocity defect and asymmetry in the near wake behind the turbine, but also showed faster wake recovery than the slower TSR and stationary cases. Wake recovery is affected by a counter-rotating vortex pair generated at the upwind-turning side of the turbine, which mixes faster fluid from the free stream in with the wake. The strength of vortices is shown to increase with TSR.
© 2014 ASME.
Published - Ryan_2014pV03BT46A024.pdf