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Published August 16, 2007 | Published + Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

Speciation of ambient fine organic carbon particles and source apportionment of PM_(2.5) in Indian cities

Abstract

Fine particle organic carbon in Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, and Chandigarh is speciated to quantify sources contributing to fine particle pollution. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of 29 particle-phase organic compounds, including n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, steranes, and levoglucosan along with quantification of silicon, aluminum, and elemental carbon are used in a molecular-marker based source apportionment model to quantify the primary source contributions to the PM_(2.5) mass concentrations for four seasons in three sites and for the summer in Chandigarh. Five primary sources are identified and quantified: diesel engine exhaust, gasoline engine exhaust, road dust, coal combustion, and biomass combustion. Important trends in the seasonal and spatial patterns of the impact of these five sources are observed. On average, primary emissions from fossil fuel combustion (coal, diesel, and gasoline) are responsible for about 25–33% of PM_(2.5) mass in Delhi, 21–36% in Mumbai, 37–57% in Kolkata, and 28% in Chandigarh. These figures can be compared to the biomass combustion contributions to ambient PM_(2.5) of 7–20% for Delhi, 7–20% for Mumbai, 13–18% for Kolkata, and 8% for Chandigarh. These measurements provide important information about the seasonal and spatial distribution of fine particle phase organic compounds in Indian cities as well as quantifying source contributions leading to the fine particle air pollution in those cities.

Additional Information

© 2007 American Geophysical Union. Received 2 January 2007; revised 28 March 2007; accepted 16 April 2007; published 7 August 2007. Funding for this work was provided by the World Bank, the U. S. EPA (agreements RD83107601 and RD83096001), Georgia Power, and the College of Sciences at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Sampling work was conducted with the assistance and cooperation of Chandra Venkataraman at the Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay, A. P. Mitra and C. Sharma at the National Physical Laboratory in Delhi, and Rakesh Kumar and A. Biswas, respectively, at the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) in Mumbai and in Kolkata. These latter institutions provided manpower for gathering samples throughout the year. In addition, the authors gratefully acknowledge the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) for the provision of the HYSPLIT transport and dispersion model and/or READY Web site (http://www.arl.noaa.gov/ready.html) used in this publication.

Attached Files

Published - jgrd13768.pdf

Supplemental Material - jgrd13768-sup-0001-readme.txt_v=003d1_s=003ded2bbd292fa237cbdebdd7b60b5e24679e6ab115

Supplemental Material - jgrd13768-sup-0001-readme.txt_v=1_s=ed2bbd292fa237cbdebdd7b60b5e24679e6ab115

Supplemental Material - jgrd13768-sup-0002-ts01.txt

Supplemental Material - jgrd13768-sup-0003-fs01a.tif

Supplemental Material - jgrd13768-sup-0004-fs01b.tif

Supplemental Material - jgrd13768-sup-0005-fs02a.tif

Supplemental Material - jgrd13768-sup-0006-fs02b.tif

Supplemental Material - jgrd13768-sup-0007-fs02c.tif

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Created:
August 22, 2023
Modified:
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