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Published February 28, 2007 | Published + Supplemental Material
Journal Article Open

Stratigraphy of the Hawai'i Scientific Drilling Project core (HSDP2): Anatomy of a Hawaiian shield volcano


The Hawai'i Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP2) successfully drilled ∼3.1 km into the island of Hawai'i. Drilling started on Mauna Loa volcano, drilling 247 m of subaerial lavas before encountering 832 m of subaerial Mauna Kea lavas, followed by 2019 m of submarine Mauna Kea volcanic and sedimentary units. The 2.85 km stratigraphic record of Mauna Kea volcano spans back to ∼650 ka. Mauna Kea subaerial lavas have high average olivine contents (13 vol.%) and low average vesicle abundances (10 vol.%). Most subaerial Mauna Kea flows are 'a'ā (∼63%), whereas the Mauna Loa section contains nearly equal amounts of pāhoehoe and 'a'ā (like its current surface). The submarine Mauna Kea section contains an upper, ∼900 m thick, hyaloclastite-rich section and a lower, ∼1100 m thick, pillow-lava-dominated section. These results support a model that Hawaiian volcanoes are built on a pedestal of pillow lavas capped by rapidly quenched, fragmented lava debris. The HSDP2 section is compared here to a 1.7 km deep hole (SOH1) on Kilauea's lower east rift zone. Differences in the sections reflect the proximity to source vents and the lower magma supply to Kilauea's rift zone. Both drill core sections are cut by intrusions, but the higher abundance of intrusions in SOH1 reflects its location within a rift zone, causing more extensive alteration in the SOH1 core. The HSDP2 site recovered a relatively unaltered core well suited for geochemical analyses of the single deepest and most complete borehole ever drilled through a Hawaiian or any other oceanic island volcano.

Additional Information

Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union. Received 6 June 2006; accepted 6 November 2006; published 28 February 2007. The HSDP2 drilling project was an enormous collaborative effort involving many people, including principal investigators D. DePaolo, E. Stolper, and D. Thomas, the drilling engineer Bruce Howell, the head driller Ron Fierbach, and numerous drilling helpers who carefully extruded the core. The core was logged by a remarkable team led by Angie Roach and Caroline Seaman. Thanks also to Jenny Riker for the Mauna Loa thin section modes, to Scott Rowland for constructive comments on an early draft of this paper, and to J. M. Rhodes and D. Geist for journal reviews. This work was supported by NSF grants EAR03-36874 (M. Garcia), EAR-9528534 (Don Thomas), and EAR-9528594 (E. Stolper) and the International Continental Drilling Program. The paper is SOEST contribution 7000 and Caltech Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences contribution 9170. Auxiliary material for this article contains general lithologic information gathered from examination and hand specimen point counts of every identified unit of the HSDP2 (2006gc001379-ts01.txt) and SOH1 (2006gc001379-ts02.txt) drill holes. Special Theme Issue: Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project, Guest Editor(s): D. DePaolo, E. Stolper, D. Thomas. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems http://www.agu.org/contents/sc/ViewCollection.do?collectionCode=HAWI1&journalCode=GC

Attached Files

Published - GARggg07.pdf

Supplemental Material - GARggg07readme.txt

Supplemental Material - GARggg07tableS1.txt

Supplemental Material - GARggg07tableS2.txt


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